Wednesday, June 6, 2018

Different Primary Loom Motions in Textile Weaving

What is Loom Motion in Weaving?
To produce woven fabric in textile industry, weaving machine is needed. The machine which is used to produce woven fabric by interlacing weft and warp yarn is termed as weaving machine. During producing woven fabric in weaving loom, some essential motions i.e. shedding motion, picking motion, beating motion, let-off motion, take-up motion etc. are used in weaving machines are known as loom motion. 
Basic loom motion in weaving
Fig: Basic loom motion in weaving
Types of Loom Motion in Textile Weaving:
In textile weaving technology, loom motion is classified into three. Those are-
  1. Primary motion,
  2. Secondary motion,
  3. Tertiary motion.

What is Primary Motion in Weaving Loom?
Primary motion is the main motion of a weaving loom in textile industry. It is impossible to produce a woven fabric in any weaving machine or loom machine without using these motions. That is why, it is known as primary motions or primary mechanisms.

Types of Primary Loom Motions in Weaving:
Primary loom motions are classified into three. Those are-
  1. Shedding motion or shedding mechanism,
  2. Picking motion or picking mechanism,
  3. Beating motion or beating mechanism.

All the above primary motions have explained in the following:

1. Shedding Motion or Shedding Mechanism:
During weaving, the total warps yarns are divided into two groups are termed as shedding. Two groups of warp yarns are made in the loom by raising and lowering of heald frames by the use of a tappet. Here, tappet can be twill or plain that is according to fabric structure to be produced.

Besides, tappet shedding, there are some other shedding mechanisms also available. Dobby shedding and jacquard shedding is also well known to the weavers.

2. Picking Motion or Picking Mechanism:
As the shed is formed in the loom, the weft yarns are through the shed by picking mechanisms. Normally, a shuttle with a weft yarn package called pirn, passes through the shed and leaves a weft yarn in the shed.

There are different types of picking mechanism available in the loom, to pass the weft yarn through the shed. Rapier, projectile, water jet, air jet etc. weft insertion mechanism is popular all over the world.

3. Beating Motion or Beating Mechanism:
When the weft yarns are laid in the weaving shed, this weft yarn is smoothly placed to the fell of the cloth in a regular way by the movement of the reed, which is secured in the sley. The sley moves to and fro by gearing connections.

The above mentioned all the three primary motions of a weaving loom i.e. picking, shedding and beating is done in a cyclic order and the fabric is manufactured. Then the fabric is passed over the front rail and wound on the cloth roller.

Others Different Loom Motions in Textile Weaving:
There are additional mechanisms available in a modern loom. Some of them are mentioned in the below:
  1. Warp stop motion,
  2. Weft stop motion,
  3. Warp protector mechanisms,
  4. Pirn changing mechanisms,
  5. Shuttle changing mechanisms,
  6. Selvedge cutting mechanisms,
  7. Selvedge forming mechanisms,
  8. Warp let-off motion,
  9. Fabrics take-off mechanisms.